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Container Terminal Concession Guidelines

Two African port associations, the Port Management Association for West Africa and Central Africa (PMAWCA) and the Port Management Association for East Africa and Southern Africa (PMAESA), with the support of the SSATP have developed guidelines on container terminal concessions for the region. The guidelines provide strategic and practical advice to high-level government decision-makers and general managers of port authorities, in their endeavor to attract professional private sector partners to invest in and operate container terminal facilities. The guidelines specifically offer practical advice to better prepare for the concession process, to review the contract provisions, and subsequently to better manage the concession. The African port landscape has changed significantly since the late 90s, when Port reforms in Sub-Sahara Africa resulted in an increased involvement of private sector companies and a decrease in port authorities who withdrew from direct involvement into cargo handling operations, particularly in West and Central Africa, but to a lesser extent in Eastern and Southern Africa. In the mid-2000s, the reforms accelerated, and within a few years, most container terminals were passed on concession to specialized Terminal Operating Companies (TOCs), which embarked on extensive rehabilitation and upgrade plans. TOCs and public port authorities have invested in modern handling equipment and revamped facilities, resulting in productivity gains and reduced congestion. Concessions have provided Governments with millions of dollars in revenue through entry tickets, annual fees and royalty payments on traffic handled by concessionaires. Greenfield projects are expected to further increase capacity to meet future demand, despite the recent slowdown in container traffic growth that has led to some of these projects to be put on hold and/or are facing headwinds in raising private financing. Despite these advancements, several challenges remain and greater benefits for economic growth could be achieved if container terminal concessions were better designed, better managed and better regulated. Sensitizing the management of the port authorities is therefore essential to maximize the benefits from TOC participation in the financing and management of container facilities.

Published:Jun 2017

Author:Marc H. Juhel

Policies for Sustainable Accessibility and Mobility in Urban Areas of Africa

Africa is urbanizing at a very high pace, and both large and intermediate African cities are experiencing rapid and often unplanned growth. As a result, policy- and decision-makers face numerous challenges regarding planning, development and management of their cities. Based on growing concerns regarding mobility and accessibility in urban areas of Africa, the Africa Transport Policy Program (SSATP) commissioned this working paper to assist African policy- and decision-makers to transform their urban areas from obstacles to growth to engines of economic development and poverty alleviation. This working paper proposes a set of policy recommendations, structured using the Enable – Avoid – Shift – Improve (EASI) conceptual framework. The EASI concept can be applied to any decision impacting urban mobility conditions and at all scales.  The objective is to set African cities on the path to better mobility, better accessibility and better quality of life for all. Click here to access the Cities Reports

Published:Jun 2015

Road Management Policy : An Approach to the Evaluation of Road Agency Performance

Efficient and effective road transport is central to the economic growth and development of all African countries, this mode accounting for about eighty to ninety percent of the continent’s total trade in goods and services. For this reason countries need adequate road infrastructure management policies, strategies and institutions to manage this crucial asset in an optimal manner including systematic means of measuring the performance of the road agencies as a basis for determining those factors that aid or impede the attainment of their desired results. In an endeavor to deepen the understanding of the factors that affect the performance of road agencies in road asset management, two evaluations of road agency performance using different approaches have been conducted in Africa during the past five years. The first approach uses the Commercialized Road Management (CRM) framework which focuses on compliance with the requirements of the four Building Blocks of the Road Management Initiative (RMI) pertaining to Responsibility, Ownership, Financing and Management previously reviewed in the SSATP Working Paper 92 (Progress on Commercialized Road Management in Africa). The second approach is the British Standards Institution’s Publicly Available Specification (PAS55:2008) which recognizes that the management of physical assets is inextricably linked to the management of other assets types, such as Human Assets, Information Assets, Intangible Assets and Financial Assets. The present Working Paper presents and compares the outcome of the two evaluations. It provides guidance to road sector stakeholders in terms of the differing analytical approaches that may be used to quantitatively evaluate the performance of road agencies. Merging the two approaches as suggested provides the flexibility to adjust performance evaluation to the various levels of performance and capacity of road institutions that can be found in road agencies. This working paper also strengthens the knowledge and awareness on good road management practices as a foundation for continuous advocacy on road sector reforms.

Published:Apr 2015

Author:Michael Ian Pinard

In Search of Evidence to Define Transport Policies: Transport Sector Data Management Systems

Data improve governance by increasing transparency and accountability. Adequate and reliable data are necessary to underpin policy decisions and to measure their effectiveness. However, in Africa few Transport Sector Data Management Systems (TSDMS) are established by transport agencies based on internal demand. As a result, there is a wide perception that high-level policy decisions in the transport sector are not taken based on evidence supported by actual data. In response to the demand and to address the challenges of data in Africa, SSATP is releasing its Working Paper No. 104 entitled In Search of Evidence to Define Transport Policies, Transport Sector Data Management Systems: Policy Note & Guidelines. The paper provides guidance to countries for designing and establishing such systems. The Policy Note advocates for and advises on setting up the proper technical, institutional, and financial capacity. The Guidelines advise on how to assess existing monitoring and evaluation systems, and detail the process to design and establish an appropriate Transport Sector Data Management System. Both capture valuable lessons learned and propose alternative ways to overcome commonly found challenges in Africa.

Published:Jan 2015

Author:Alberto Nogales

Africa Transport Policies Performance Review: The Need for More Robust Transport Policies

Addressing the infrastructure gap in Africa, in particular in transport, has contributed to put in place the foundation for accelerating economic growth. These efforts are indeed bearing fruits, especially in terms of improved accessibility and connectivity – new areas are getting opened up and communities are getting better connected to services. This notwithstanding, the price of transport services in Africa is still one of the highest, the quality of services is overall poor and modern transport logistics is in general lacking. Indeed, infrastructure is only a means to an end and not an end in itself. The solution to the transport efficiency problem lies, not only in plugging the infrastructure gap, but perhaps more aptly in addressing the policy aspects that positively influence the way the infrastructure is used. With this realization, member countries requested SSATP to commission a study to review the performance of transport policies in Africa as an initial learning step towards the determination of the policy areas of focus for the future. Based on the findings of the study and gleaning from other policy work in the transport sector in Africa, the SSATP is releasing a concise note entitled “Towards More Robust Transport Policies”. The note targeted at policy makers aims to provide guidance in a number of policy areas to strengthen the development impact of transport policies that are necessary to sustain economic growth.

Published:Jan 2015

Author:Justin Runji

Private Sector Involvement in Road Financing

Most African countries are faced with substantial challenges to meet their needs for road maintenance, rehabilitation and construction through public financing. The underfunding problems are not likely to be solved completely without increased participation from private sector investors. Thus in 2012 the SSATP member countries expressed the need for informed policy advice on private sector involvement in road financing, provision and management with focus on Public-Private-Partnerships (PPPs). Accordingly, SSATP launched in 2013 a study to consolidate good practices for advocacy on private sector involvement in road financing, provision and management applicable to African countries. The objectives of the study were to document lessons and good practices on private sector involvement focusing on road PPPs in SSA, and to enable in-depth understanding of the key issues and principles for roads PPPs, including lenders requirements and risk factors. The study involved field visits in African countries and consultations with stakeholders to underscore the need for wider understanding of benefits, success factors and challenges for road PPPs, and to create a solid platform for advocacy. Based on the findings of the study, SSATP is releasing a paper entitled “Private Sector Involvement in Road Financing”. The paper presents three case studies with lessons on policies and practices required to understand the key issues, principles and the basic conditions that must be met for private participation to be possible in the financing of roads. It is also aimed to give accurate view on the potential for roads PPP in SSA and stimulate interest from countries on private sector investment in the road sector.

Published:Dec 2014

Author:Peter Brocklebank

Reviving Trade Routes: Evidence from the Maputo Corridor

This new SSATP discussion paper reviews the experience of an apparently successful corridor to help understand optimal mix and trade-offs in reviving historical trade route. The Maputo Corridor, which had fallen in disuse during the troubled period in Mozambique, is widely regarded as one the successful corridors. It has experienced tremendous growth, attracted large industrial and transport investments, and strengthened ties between neighboring countries over its almost two decade long history since the end of the apartheid era in South Africa and the Peace Agreement in Mozambique. What makes the Maputo Corridor ideal as a source of learning lessons is that it has many contrasting facets—it is an established trade route with a development focus, as well as an hinterland corridor, a mining and resource-based corridor—whereas other corridors may have a far less diverse nature. The lessons that can be learnt from the Maputo Corridor thus have relevance for a wider variety of corridors, and can help regional economic communities, countries, corridor users and development partners to better focus their corridor strategies to maximize economic growth.

Published:Dec 2014

Author:Sandra Sequeira, Olivier Hartmann, Charles Kunaka

Managing Road Safety in Africa: A Framework for National Lead Agencies

Africa is currently experiencing the highest per capita rate of road fatalities in the world. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates the rate of road traffic deaths at 24.1 per 100,000 people in Africa. By comparison, this rate is 18.5 in Asia and 10.3 in Europe. The problem is set to worsen. According to projections by WHO, road fatalities in sub-Saharan Africa will increase by 112%, from approximately 243,000 in 2015 to 514,000 in 2030. This expected escalation comes as some improvement is being projected for the two diseases which are the focus of the Millennium Development Goals—malaria and HIV/AIDS. The establishment and strengthening of road agencies were a key institutional reform of the African transport landscape in the late twentieth century. Today road safety lead agencies are at the frontline of a public health epidemic in Africa and need considerable investment and support from national governments and the international community alike in order to effectively tackle this crisis. This road safety management framework has been prepared to assist countries and the regional economic communities to recognize and address the significant deficits in road safety management capacity. For those with functional and efficient agencies, the goal is to significantly strengthen them and to take agency leadership forward as we collectively build a safer and more prosperous future for Africa. This framework is not a comprehensive step-by-step guide—such material already exists and is well referenced here. Rather, it is a framework that, in addition to addressing generic concerns, is customized to the peculiarities and circumstances faced by many African road safety institutions. I urge countries to candidly accept that road safety management gaps exist and to use this framework as an instrument to pinpoint and close those gaps. The lives of millions of Africans depend on us continuing to improve our road safety management efforts.

Published:Oct 2014

Good Policies and Practices on Rural Transport in Africa: Planning Infrastructure & Services

This paper provides an overall framework for identifying, planning and prioritizing rural transport infrastructure and services interventions. A key element is to encourage a holistic understanding of rural transport. Although services and infrastructure can be planned in isolation of each other, the best long-term results are likely to be achieved if they are improved in conjunction with each other. The paper outlines a range of measures and procedures to plan and improve rural transport infrastructure and services (Cost Effectiveness and Ranking Criteria, iRAP, HDM-4, and the Roads Economic Decision model (RED). A new planning procedure, the Rural Transport Prioritization Framework is introduced, primarily to assist with planning transport service initiatives. All approaches have strengths and weaknesses, and no solution will be ideal in all circumstances.

Published:Sep 2014

Author:John Hine

Good Policies and Practices on Rural Transport in Africa: Monitoring & Evaluation

A monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system is an essential element of the planning, design and implementation of rural transport projects and is useful in assessing whether projects achieve their strategic and development objectives. However, tracking results and being able to use them for future planning is a big challenge for developing and improving rural transport in Africa. There is a lack of evidence on both the development impacts of rural transport improvements and more importantly the benefits they bring to the rural poor. This knowledge gap has arisen because of the methodological weaknesses of existing impact studies in Africa and the failure to undertake robust baseline data collection before a rural transport project has started. In an endeavor to strengthen the knowledge on rural transport M&E, SSATP has carried out a study to identify gaps in the current knowledge products and practice, and ways for filling them. This work covered a review of the existing knowledge and methodologies for rural transport improvements. Based on the findings of the study, SSATP is releasing this new working paper to contribute to wider efforts in order to increase M&E capacity in rural transport and adopt appropriate methodologies to undertake impact evaluations of rural transport interventions.

Published:Jun 2014

Author:Anthony Airey

A Review of International Legal Instruments for the Facilitation of Transport and Trade in Africa

Transport infrastructure is essential for inclusive growth and poverty reduction but the investments in building and maintaining it remain sub-optimal as long as the movement of goods is not seamless across countries and (sub)regions. Harmonized standards, operations and processes are critical to facilitate international transport and trade and to eliminate market access barriers. Many countries negotiate international treaties or become parties to existing instruments in order to eliminate such barriers and achieve better regional integration. Experience shows that signing or ratifying a treaty without proper consequent enforcement remains a theoretical act, without effects on peoples’ lives. This review provides a corpus or inventory of legal instruments aimed at facilitating trade and transport within Africa and between countries of the region. Access to and ratification of basic worldwide agreements on trade and facilitation remain uneven. The review also shows some discrepancies between legal instruments and that bringing legal instruments into force remains weak. This work will hopefully contribute to a better harmonization and consistency between them. For more information and access to all annexes, please visit the dedicated page: http://www.ssatp.org/en/page/legal-instruments-facilitation-transport-and-trade

Published:Apr 2014

Author:Jean Grosdidier de Matons
(Français [PDF])

Corridor Transport Observatory Guidelines

Trade and transport corridors are complex entities that have been defined as ‘a coordinated bundle of transport and logistics infrastructure and services that facilitates trade and transport flows between major centers of economic activity’. From a trader’s perspective, corridor efficiency and performance is all about cost, time and predictability associated with the seamless movement of freight along the corridors. In other words, corridor efficiency is all about the multiple dimensions of efficient logistics. But corridor performance depends on a complex combination of factors involving public and private entities (logistics operators, control and enforcement agencies), as well as ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ components (transport infrastructure and facilities, legal and regulatory environment, procedures and practices). Improving corridor performance requires therefore a good understanding of the obstacles to trade in order to determine the causes for lack of performance and not just the symptoms. Then, once the causes for lack of performance are identified, a one-solution-fits-all approach is rarely applicable to such a level of complexity, and making the right decision requires obtaining precisely the right information made available at the right time. Corridor Transport Observatories have been conceived to provide that right information, either as a permanent mechanism anchored to corridor management institutions or as an ad hoc expanded diagnosis into selected aspects of corridor performance. The present Guidelines compile, in a well-structured and easy to use package, a series of tools, instruments and methods that take advantage of the wealth of information generated by logistics operations to apprehend the multiple dimensions of corridor performance efficiency. The facilitation programs of the Regional Economic Communities and Corridors under which these guidelines have been developed cover several major African corridors.

Published:Nov 2013

Author:Olivier Hartmann
(Français [PDF])

SSATP 2012 Annual Report

Setting an Agenda for the Future: Learning from the Past This year’s annual report exceptionally covers an 18-month period — an eventful and demanding time for SSATP, as it had to reconsider its focus, realign its activities to a new reality and promptly respond to emerging needs in the transport sector in Africa. At the same time, the Program had to keep on implementing ongoing tasks while drafting the Third Development Plan (DP3), a forward-looking five-year task-driven strategic vision.

Published:Nov 2013

Guidelines for Mainstreaming Road Safety in Regional Trade Road Corridors

This SSATP publication, jointly prepared with the World Bank, provides best practice guidelines for mainstreaming road safety in regional road trade corridors (RTRCs) investment programs in low and middle income countries (LMICs). The benefits of both physical and institutional improvements implemented under trade and transport corridor investment projects in developing countries have been often compromised by the increases in road accident risks as a result of increased truck traffic volumes and higher speeds. Therefore, there is a clear need to maximize the effectiveness of these investments in RTRCs through more comprehensive and efficient interventions in road safety; however, the available guidance on how corridor projects should address road safety issues has been found to be limited. These guidelines intend to fill this gap and provide a tailored approach to RTRC road safety priorities by (i) highlighting global best practice road safety management in regional trade corridors; (ii) summarizing current road safety management capacity in RTRCs in LMICs; (iii) outlining generic components of best practice road safety investment projects; and (iv) setting out a roadmap and a range of tools to assist the identification, preparation and implementation of road safety projects in RTRCs.

Published:Jul 2013

Author:Jeanne Breen, Richard Martin Humphreys, Sevara Melibaeva
(Français [PDF])

Border Crossing Monitoring along the Northern Corridor

When one thinks of border crossing in Africa, the image that comes in mind is that of a long queue of trucks waiting idly to fill out paper. The improvement of road infrastructure was expected to reduce transport costs and prices. However, all the benefits derived by this achievement are undermined by time lost at the border. In the last decade, several border posts on main trade corridors in Africa have been converted into One Stop Border Posts (OSBP), which have been perceived as a miracle solution to save time. However, results have rarely met expectations, since coordination between border agencies from different countries is far from simple. With support from SSATP, the Northern Corridor Secretariat has developed a comprehensive corridor performance measurement framework. The surveys shed light on the reasons for slow border processing in Eastern Africa. This publication shows how effective cooperation between border agencies results in a highly improved border crossing and brings a new perspective on the relative importance of infrastructure versus inter agency cooperation.

Published:Apr 2013

(Français [PDF])

Framework for Improving Railway Sector Performance in Sub-Saharan Africa

When The African continent has been making regular headlines with double digits growth economies, an emerging middle class, an explosion in mobile communications, and huge untapped mineral resources. Still, the spread of this new wealth is slow and the benefits of this significant growth are marred by persistent structural issues, among them and often cited is the poor level of infrastructures. Road, rail and port network is still ill adapted to the continent expansion and the regional economic development. Rail in particular has suffered by decades of low level of direct investment, poor infrastructure management and inefficient train operations. Although the issue has been addressed by governments and development agencies, and despite local improvements, the revival of African railways has not happened. This study draws fascinating conclusions on the last 15 years’ experience from railways concessions in sub-Saharan Africa, and re-examines the performance of the railways in the light of the considerable changes in the transport and logistics industry in the last two decades, that have affected the African continent as well as the rest of the world. What are the policies required to restore the railways competitiveness? What are the improvements needed in terms of managing railways assets, restoring train operations reliability and financial sustainability of this sector? What lessons should be learned in terms of ownership, partnership and financial responsibility of the public and private actors? The study highlights the most urgent problems facing the rail transport sector and provides a set of recommendations that would help both public and private interests to partner constructively in the revitalization of the sub-Saharan African rail network.

Published:Mar 2013

(Français [PDF])

Transport Governance Indicators for Sub-Saharan Africa

Good governance or the lack of it has been a concern of transport sector policy makers and stakeholders for decades. The sector is a major contributor to poverty reduction and economic growth where billions of dollars have been spent on improving and rehabilitating transport infrastructure. However, despite this considerable investment and much associated effort to build supportive technical, financial and management capability, performance continues to lag behind expectation. “Poor governance” is often cited as an underlying reason, a concept that encompasses a range of shortcomings from weak leadership to outright corruption. This recent work by SSATP on transport governance indicators provides a tool not only for countries to measure governance in the sector but to monitor results on actions taken.  

Published:Nov 2012

(Français [PDF])

The Soft Side of BRT: Lessons from 5 Developing Countries

The Soft Side of BRT: Lessons from 5 Developing Countries This publication is based on an extensive review of the literature, interviews with stakeholders, and analysis of primary data to document lessons from the BRT experience in Jakarta, Indonesia; Lagos, Nigeria; Johannesburg, South Africa; and Delhi and Ahmedabad, India.   

Published:Nov 2012

Rural transport : Improving its Contribution to Growth and Poverty Reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa

The paper provides a framework that will help policy makers in Africa to move from stand-alone rural transport policies to comprehensive and integrated policies, positioning rural transport within the framework of rural development, and ensuring strong linkages with other key sectors. Of particular emphasis is the linkage between rural transport with actions to improve agricultural productivity, rural growth and poverty reduction. This paper has been developed from analytical work using lessons from experience in Africa and other continents.

Published:Oct 2012

Author:George Banjo, Henry Gordon, John Riverson

Progress Report January-June 2012

This latest progress report contains important information for all SSATP's stakeholders and partners related to the current activities of the Program for 2012 and its future , in particular the revised results framework and the roadmap for the renewal of the Program.

Published:Jun 2012

Author:SSATP

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