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Case Study on Intermediate Means of Transport -- Bicycles and Rural Women in Uganda -- Part Five

Published:Jan 1994

Author:Christina E. Malmberg Calvo
(Français [PDF])

Commercializing Africa’s Roads: Transforming the Role of the Public Sector

There are over one and a half million km of roads in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), including 554,000 km of main roads. Almost without exception, these roads are managed by bureaucratic government roads departments. The roads carry 80 to 90 percent of the region's passenger and freight traffic, absorb 5 to 10 percent of central government recurrent budgets and 10 to 20 percent of their development budgets. Furthermore, a significant proportion of the central government's disbursed and outstanding debt is attributable to road loans and the sector also absorbs a great deal of grant finance, mainly for procurement of construction and maintenance equipment. In terms of assets, employment and turnover (particularly with maintenance fully funded) roads are truly big business. They are generally far larger than railways, or national airlines. In spite of their importance, roads in SSA are poorly managed and badly maintained. The replacement cost of main roads in SSA is nearly $80 billion and it requires annual expenditures on routine and periodic maintenance of over $800 million to keep these roads in a stable long-term condition. African countries have spent nothing like this amount during the past 20 years and, as a result, about $14 billion of the capital invested in roads has been eroded through lack of maintenance. SSA has been living off its assets.

Published:Dec 1993

Author:Ian Heggie
(Français [PDF])

Trade and Transport Logistics Facilitation Guidelines

The main objective of these guidelines is to advise on how to approach the complex issue of competitiveness in trade, and on how to achieve cost savings in logistics by reducing the time of immobilization of freight in transit. The interaction between transport infrastructure and transport and trade logistics is such that investments in infrastructure facilities and equipment will not reduce costs unless the institutional and operational logistics moving the freight and documenting are free from institutional or physical interference. In short, regional infrastructure investments may add to a country's debt burden without contributing to cost-effectiveness. Chapter I of this report examines the historic and economic context of trade and transport logistics in Africa. This report is arranged as follows: Chapter II looks at the background of competitiveness in Africa by reviewing issues encountered in the transport of freight. The examination of issues leads to the consideration of the diseconomies in transport and trade logistics, and to the price which African economies are paying for the distortions introduced by inefficiency. Cost consideration leads to reform in policies, institutional efficiency, and logistic performance. Chapter III considers the work on facilitation carried out by the Bank and other institutions and its impact. Chapter IV offers suggestions on how to deal with issues in the logistic chain when preparing a program of reform. It also reviews the critical stages of a facilitation program, in particular identification, preparation, and execution, and the instruments available to strengthen the program's implementation. Finally, Chapter V proposes an agenda for Bank staff intervention in facilitation by reviewing experience in project work and by discussing lending implications when introducing policy reform. The report also contains various annexes, including a checklist for identification of facilitation components, customs software programs, terms-of-reference for a Trade and Transport Facilitation Committee, a summary of recommendations in corridor studies evaluation, and an evaluation of customs software programs.

Published:Aug 1993

Author:Carlos T. de Castro

Road User Taxation in Selected OECD Countries

The objective of this paper is to examine issues related to road user taxation, in a selection of "most successful countries". On the basis of six case studies, it provides a comparative review of policy towards road user taxation, as well as each country's approach towards determining the actual rate, or level of tax. The study portrays the decision-making process, and the balance between theoretical organization considerations on the one hand, and broader economic, or political considerations on the other. The paper addresses a number of questions about determining road user taxes. First, the institutional framework within which decisions on road user taxes are taken, is discussed; second, the main considerations taken into account in determining the road user taxes, are identified and reviewed; third, the paper examines the extent to which the actual structure and level of road user taxes accords with, or deviates from an optimal one, as dictated by economic theory; finally, the relationship between fuel taxation, and the broad-based indirect tax system is examined, and, some preliminary observations are made regarding the level of the fuel tax in relation to the general consumption tax, as well as the determination of indirect tax rates in general. The focus of this paper is on a selection of developed countries from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD); however, it should provide valuable insights for developing practical guidelines that improve road users' taxes in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Published:Jul 1993

Author:Cavelle Creightney

The Role of the World Bank in the Development of Urban Transport in Sub-Saharan Africa

During the first period the Bank's main concern was to find ways of relieving urban traffic congestion. This mainly involved the prescription of traffic management, road rehabilitation and road construction. It also involved helping the formal public transport sector become more efficient and building local capabilities to plan, implementation and monitor traffic management schemes. This focus is reflected in the projects undertaken in the Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Senegal, Cameroon and Zimbabwe. During the second period the Bank's main concern shifted to the development of comprehensive urban transport policies. The principal focus was on public transport supply, finance and efficiency, road rehabilitation and maintenance, traffic management, road safety and institution building in all these sub-sectors. It was during this period that we see more attention being given to non-motorized transport. A Bank led team of experts would prepare a comprehensive overview of urban transport policy in the country concerned. A key element of the report would be the recommendations concerning policy action programs. These programs were developed by the Bank team with inputs from local officials. Essentially, it was a Bank owned report. The degree to which ownership was transferred to the country was dependent on the political willingness of the country to accept the Bank's findings. The proposed projects in Kenya and Nigeria reflect this approach.

Published:May 1993

Author:Richard Barrett

Shipping Services in Western and Central African Countries -- Cotonou, June 1992

This paper reports on the discussions and conclusions of the three working groups which have been established to deal with the main topics: (a) macroeconomic impact of maritime transport on the African economies; (b) structural evolution of maritime transport; and (c) maritime transport policy. At the conclusion of four days of intensive debates, the participants approved a series of recommendations. These recommendations summarize the major issues to be studied that will allow participants to adopt a common development strategy for their shipping services and the improvement of the transport chain. The development of this strategy is planned for a follow-up seminar in 1993 or 1994. This project document defines a number of studies which would provide the basis for a common maritime transport strategy for the sub-region and inspire a general consensus on the best possible policy for West and Central Africa. These studies would aim at (a) redefining the mission of the shippers' councils; (b) measuring the impact of transport costs on the countries' export competitiveness; (c) reviewing the situation of transport facilitation; and (d) evaluate the prospects for the national shipping companies. The present document is organized into two volumes: Volume I contains the objectives and the organization of the Round Table, the conclusions of the working groups, and the final recommendations. Volume II includes the texts of the papers presented by experts to the three working groups.

Published:May 1993

Managing Small Contracts, Practical Guidance on How to Streamline and Manage Small Contracts for Public Works and Services (Contracting Out of Road Maintenance Activities: Volume IV)

Published:Apr 1993

Author:Jean-Marie Lantran

Rural Roads in Sub-Saharan Africa -- Lessons from World Bank Experience

This report, prepared under the Rural Travel and Transport Project of the sub - Saharan Africa Transport Program (SSATP), presents findings from a review of 127 projects with rural road components in SSA. The review highlights key policy changes discussed under the main headings of planning, design and technology, resource mobilization, and sectoral organization and institutional performance. Planning is seen as a process involving key constituencies at various levels rather than a methodology. Prevailing financial constrains and low traffic volumes suggest that the majority of SSA rural roads should be designed to provide essential access, emphasizing spot surface improvements and better drainage. The author also stresses the need to eventually involve local funding administrered by local organizations, with technical advice from central authority. However, competition for resources is fierce at the local level, and investigation is necessary to evolve suitable methods for rural road maintenance, funded and administered by local organizations. Finally, institutional problems were found to predominate in rural road projects, but improvement has been slow. Although setups should accommodate local conditions, the most effective institutional arrangement is likely to be through a small centralized agency which can act as a focus for policies, planning and funding for rual roads. Operations should then be undertaken through local organizations responsible for maintenance

Published:May 1992

Author:John Riverson, Juan Gaviria, and Sydney Thriscutt
(Français [PDF])

Setting Up a Plant Pool (Contracting Out Road Maintenance Activities: Volume III)

Published:Dec 1991

Author:Jean-Marie Lantran, Roger Lebussy
(Français [PDF])

Intermediate Means of Transport in Sub-Saharan Africa -- Its Potential for Improving Rural Travel and Transport

Current rural travel and transport are dominated by head loading and walking (largely by women) to satisfy the daily travel and goods movement needs of rural populations in sub - Saharan Africa (SSA). Although rural roads and off-road transport may interact synergistically, with each amplifying the economic and social impact of the other, this interaction has not been directly studied or quantified. When intermediate means of transport (IMTs) have been introduced in the past and used in the transport system, private individuals have usually developed and reaped the benefits. The better understanding that is required of the nature of rural travel and transport and its impact on rural development is being addressed in current studies under the sub - Saharan Africa Transport Program (SSATP) by the World Bank and Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) with the support of bilateral donors. This working paper discusses the current situation, develops new policy directions, and specifies need and ongoing studies for improving rural travel and transport in sub - Saharan Africa (SSA).

Published:Nov 1991

Author:John D. N. Riverson and Steve Carapetis

Contracts for Road Maintenance Works, Agreements for Works by Direct Labor (Contracting Out of Road Maintenance Activities: Volume II)

Published:May 1991

Author:Jean-Marie Lantran
(Français [PDF])

Developing Domestic Contractors for Road Maintenance in Africa (Contracting Out of Road Maintenance Activities: Volume I)

Published:Dec 1990

Author:Jean-Marie Lantran
(Français [PDF])

The Route to Good Living

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(Français [PDF])

Lessons learned to Date from HIV-AIDS Transport Corridor Projects

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Transport against HIV-AIDS : Synthesis of Experiences and Best Practice Guidelines

Published:

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