The literature gives two explanations for contractors' reluctance to adopt labor-based methods. First, contractors believe the cost of learning this new technology is high. Programs designed to promote labor-based methods have always included subsidized training to address this problem. This study argues that focusing on training often diverts attention away from more substantive problems inherent in adopting labor-based methods.
The argument presented in this report is that the relationships between improved rural road infrastructure and the provision of complementary vehicle services have not been fully understood resulting in over emphasis on infrastructure and under emphasis on the vehicle services themselves. The paper draws on evidence from cross country comparisons to conclude that there are particular problems in the rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).
Until the late 1970s, the Finnish Road and Waterways Administration (RWA) operated as a highly centralized agency. Then RWA started its gradual reforms. In the mid 1980s, RWA began evolving into a market-oriented road administration. As part of the reform process, there have been profound changes in competition law, principles of public procurement, and in the legislation enabling the creation of state-owned enterprises and the commercialization of government agencies.