During the first period the Bank's main concern was to find ways of relieving urban traffic congestion. This mainly involved the prescription of traffic management, road rehabilitation and road construction. It also involved helping the formal public transport sector become more efficient and building local capabilities to plan, implementation and monitor traffic management schemes. This focus is reflected in the projects undertaken in the Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Senegal, Cameroon and Zimbabwe.
Using labor-based methods for road works has been an important part of the strategy to improve rural transport infrastructure in Africa over the past twenty-five years. These methods not only produce gravel roads of equal quality to those produced using equipment-based methods, but they also generate rural employment in a accost-effective manner. Although labor-based methods have proved to be a cost-effective alternative to equipment-based methods in many low-wage Sub-Saharan African countries, these methods have not been applied on large scale.
The study reviews the intermediate means of transport in eastern Uganda, suggesting that ownership, and use of bicycles is a double-sided factor in meeting household needs, for it not only provides transportation, but serves as a means of income generation. Several factors however, influence ownership of a bicycle, namely, economic status, cultural background, and location with regard to the terrain, and infrastructure. The cost of bicycles is comparatively higher than prices received for agricultural commodities, in addition to the fact that credit availability is non-existent.
The literature gives two explanations for contractors' reluctance to adopt labor-based methods. First, contractors believe the cost of learning this new technology is high. Programs designed to promote labor-based methods have always included subsidized training to address this problem. This study argues that focusing on training often diverts attention away from more substantive problems inherent in adopting labor-based methods.
This is Part 3 of a series intended to share information about issues raised in various Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program (SSATP) reports, and the note addresses the impact, and lessons learned from road sector reforms in two countries: Burkina Faso, and Ghana. While Burkina Faso's reforms are more structured, and planned, Ghana's more complex political, and economic history have had greater influence on road sector reforms than any attempt at advance planning.
As part of a series intended to share information about issues raised in various Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program (SSATP) reports, this note is the first part, addressing the road sector reform process in Ghana, still challenged by political, economic, and social forces.
Upon the request of the World Bank, the Institute of Transport Economics, Norway did an appraisal of the road safety situation and road safety work in five African countries: Benin, Cote d'Ivoire, Kenya, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. The overall objective of the evaluation was to identify key measures that would reduce fatalities, personal injuries, and material damage from road accidents in Africa. The information was collected through visits to the five countries.
The report is based on the Interim Work Plan for 2001 issued in February 2001 following discussions with donors at the Initial General Assembly Meeting held in Copenhagen. At that time a three-year program had been presented and discussed, and it was agreed that this interim program should be prepared. This executive summary includes a presentation, in tabular form, of all the planned activities under the Interim Work Plan, and what was actually achieved.
The basic premises of the Program are that: (i) policy reform is essential to obtain improved provision of transport services; and (ii) countries and their development partners need to collaborate within the framework of a common vision of policies and strategies in the sector. The SSATP is concentrating on assisting African countries in their efforts to build capacity for designing and implementing these premises. Capacity building is now firmly the focus of the Program.
The present Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Program (SSATP) progress report, specifies that, while the Program's basic premises, still prevail - policy reform, essential to obtain improved provision of transport services, within a common regulatory framework on sector policies and strategies - it is however, at present, focusing on assisting African countries in capacity building, and ensuring an exchange of experiences, among countries facing similar options.