Trade and Transport Facilitation -- A Review of Current Issues and Operational Experience

This joint World Bank/UNCTAD review proposes ways and means to improve the competitiveness of a country's international trade by: increasing the quality and reducing the associated costs of international transport; and reducing any possible transaction cost, adapting commercial practices to international standards, and removing any unnecessary trade barriers within the economic, social, and political context of that country. This report is organized as follows: Chapter 1 of the review provides definitions and introduces some basic concepts and criteria.

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The Problems Facing Labor-based Road Programs and What to Do About Them -- Evidence from Ghana

The literature gives two explanations for contractors' reluctance to adopt labor-based methods. First, contractors believe the cost of learning this new technology is high. Programs designed to promote labor-based methods have always included subsidized training to address this problem. This study argues that focusing on training often diverts attention away from more substantive problems inherent in adopting labor-based methods.

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