This joint World Bank/UNCTAD review proposes ways and means to improve the competitiveness of a country's international trade by: increasing the quality and reducing the associated costs of international transport; and reducing any possible transaction cost, adapting commercial practices to international standards, and removing any unnecessary trade barriers within the economic, social, and political context of that country. This report is organized as follows: Chapter 1 of the review provides definitions and introduces some basic concepts and criteria.
The literature gives two explanations for contractors' reluctance to adopt labor-based methods. First, contractors believe the cost of learning this new technology is high. Programs designed to promote labor-based methods have always included subsidized training to address this problem. This study argues that focusing on training often diverts attention away from more substantive problems inherent in adopting labor-based methods.
This note summarizes challenges, responses and lessons learned by two World Bank supported projects addressing HIV/AIDS in the road sector. These are: The Joint Regional HIV/AIDS Project in the Abidjan Lagos Transport Corridor (Corridor Project) and the Ethiopia Road Sector Development Program (RSDP). While the Corridor Project is regional and addresses HIV/AIDS on the road between Abidjan and Lagos, the RSDP is a country specific road construction program with an HIV/AIDS component.