This joint World Bank/UNCTAD review proposes ways and means to improve the competitiveness of a country's international trade by: increasing the quality and reducing the associated costs of international transport; and reducing any possible transaction cost, adapting commercial practices to international standards, and removing any unnecessary trade barriers within the economic, social, and political context of that country. This report is organized as follows: Chapter 1 of the review provides definitions and introduces some basic concepts and criteria.
This paper discusses the containerized seaborne trade between West Africa and Europe. It gives an overview of current status of the maritime industry in the region, discusses ways in which less costly transportation chains can be achieved and, in particular, examines claims made on the benefit of a development of a hub-and-spoke system for the region. The maritime transportation industry serving West Africa has been late in adapting to the increasingly more efficient operations experienced in most other developing regions.
The main objective of these guidelines is to advise on how to approach the complex issue of competitiveness in trade, and on how to achieve cost savings in logistics by reducing the time of immobilization of freight in transit. The interaction between transport infrastructure and transport and trade logistics is such that investments in infrastructure facilities and equipment will not reduce costs unless the institutional and operational logistics moving the freight and documenting are free from institutional or physical interference.