This joint World Bank/UNCTAD review proposes ways and means to improve the competitiveness of a country's international trade by: increasing the quality and reducing the associated costs of international transport; and reducing any possible transaction cost, adapting commercial practices to international standards, and removing any unnecessary trade barriers within the economic, social, and political context of that country. This report is organized as follows: Chapter 1 of the review provides definitions and introduces some basic concepts and criteria.
During the first period the Bank's main concern was to find ways of relieving urban traffic congestion. This mainly involved the prescription of traffic management, road rehabilitation and road construction. It also involved helping the formal public transport sector become more efficient and building local capabilities to plan, implementation and monitor traffic management schemes. This focus is reflected in the projects undertaken in the Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Senegal, Cameroon and Zimbabwe.
This overview discusses the financial aspects of the four studies of urban transport microenterprises referred to in the Foreword. These studies covered far more than financial issues, since the objective was to understand how such enterprises operate, and to grasp all the factors which enter into play in this transport sub-sector, taking, if not a macroeconomic, then at least a meso-economic perspective.
The literature gives two explanations for contractors' reluctance to adopt labor-based methods. First, contractors believe the cost of learning this new technology is high. Programs designed to promote labor-based methods have always included subsidized training to address this problem. This study argues that focusing on training often diverts attention away from more substantive problems inherent in adopting labor-based methods.
This paper, prepared under the Rural Travel and Transport Project (RTTP) of the sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program (SSATP) focuses on local level transport in rural Africa. Households surveys and case studies on intermediate means of transport (IMT) and the role of transport in women's lives were carried out to enhance the understanding of the circumstances under which local level transport imposes a constraint, of the nature of that constraint, and of the appropriate measures to alleviate the constraint.
Current rural travel and transport are dominated by head loading and walking (largely by women) to satisfy the daily travel and goods movement needs of rural populations in sub - Saharan Africa (SSA). Although rural roads and off-road transport may interact synergistically, with each amplifying the economic and social impact of the other, this interaction has not been directly studied or quantified. When intermediate means of transport (IMTs) have been introduced in the past and used in the transport system, private individuals have usually developed and reaped the benefits.
This report, prepared under the Rural Travel and Transport Project of the sub - Saharan Africa Transport Program (SSATP), presents findings from a review of 127 projects with rural road components in SSA. The review highlights key policy changes discussed under the main headings of planning, design and technology, resource mobilization, and sectoral organization and institutional performance. Planning is seen as a process involving key constituencies at various levels rather than a methodology.
Until the late 1970s, the Finnish Road and Waterways Administration (RWA) operated as a highly centralized agency. Then RWA started its gradual reforms. In the mid 1980s, RWA began evolving into a market-oriented road administration. As part of the reform process, there have been profound changes in competition law, principles of public procurement, and in the legislation enabling the creation of state-owned enterprises and the commercialization of government agencies.
In August 1996, the Heads of State of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) signed the Protocol on Transport, Communications and Meteorology, which sets a broad framework of regional cooperation between SADC Member States in the fields of transport, communications, and meteorology infrastructure and services. A primary objective of the Protocol is to promote the harmonization of policy, legislation, and administrative practices between member states to improve good governance within those sectors.
The report presents findings, and the way forward in respect of the Knowledge and Research (KAR) Project on vehicle operations in Sub-Saharan Africa, basically undertaken in Uganda and Ghana. In the first phase, the study identified problems faced by transport operators in both countries, and analyzed their impact on vehicle operating costs, as well as examining transport regulations, and current organization of transport services and their impact on vehicle utilization.