Gazing into the Mirror - Operational Internal Control in Cameroon Customs

Cameroon is a model example of a developing country facing the challenges of trade facilitation, in light of its geographic location within Central Africa. Close to 20 percent of its Customs revenues are used to finance the national budget. Cameroon’s Customs administration therefore plays a critical role in its economy. This paper presents the modernization process launched in Cameroon Customs in 2006 and, in particular, the original approach adopted—the very early introduction of operational internal control as the keystone of the reform process under way.

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Trade and Transport Facilitation -- A Review of Current Issues and Operational Experience

This joint World Bank/UNCTAD review proposes ways and means to improve the competitiveness of a country's international trade by: increasing the quality and reducing the associated costs of international transport; and reducing any possible transaction cost, adapting commercial practices to international standards, and removing any unnecessary trade barriers within the economic, social, and political context of that country. This report is organized as follows: Chapter 1 of the review provides definitions and introduces some basic concepts and criteria.

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Trade and Transport Logistics Facilitation Guidelines

The main objective of these guidelines is to advise on how to approach the complex issue of competitiveness in trade, and on how to achieve cost savings in logistics by reducing the time of immobilization of freight in transit. The interaction between transport infrastructure and transport and trade logistics is such that investments in infrastructure facilities and equipment will not reduce costs unless the institutional and operational logistics moving the freight and documenting are free from institutional or physical interference.

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Privately Financed Infrastructure -- A Concession Company’s Point of View

Under a concession system the state grants a franchise the right to finance, build, own, operate, and maintain a public infrastructure for a given period, and to charge users for that service. Concessions are normally stand-alone, single-purpose entities that are expected to finance themselves eventually, if not initially, without recourse to their shareholders. They are independent corporate entities run by a dedicated staff that seeks career advancement within the concession company. Invariably, the successful concession has been created because of a compelling economic need.

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