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Mobilité urbaine -- Onzième réunion du comité d'orientation -- Rentabilité et financement des entreprises

Published:mar 2001

Author:Eddy Bloy

Bilan et Perspectives du Conseil Exécutif des Transports Urbains de Dakar & Transport Urbain a Bangui

Published:mar 2001

Rentabilité et financement des micro-entreprises de transport collectif en Afrique subsaharienne -- Synthèse de l'étude régionale sur Abidjan, Bamako, Harare et Nairobi

This overview discusses the financial aspects of the four studies of urban transport microenterprises referred to in the Foreword. These studies covered far more than financial issues, since the objective was to understand how such enterprises operate, and to grasp all the factors which enter into play in this transport sub-sector, taking, if not a macroeconomic, then at least a meso-economic perspective. However, given the need to replace vehicle fleets, the financial issues appeared particularly relevant, and it was thought advisable to examine financial arrangements that would encourage replacement, and to assess their feasibility in the cities studied. While the subject had already been dealt with in each of the monographs, a more targeted discussion of it was considered desirable. The various objectives of this financial overview may therefore be summed up as follows: First, the methodological options available need to be validated and explained. While this was of course done in the four case studies, it was necessarily done briefly, given the considerable number of other issues covered. Second, by presenting financial snapshots of urban public transport microenterprise operations in the four cities in a single document, it is possible to highlight both the specific structural characteristics of the operations - as will be seen, there are many such features - and in particular the underlying trends observable, irrespective of local differences. It is especially important to compare the ability of the various operations to generate sufficient cash flow to help finance the vehicles. Third, it is necessary to incorporate into the picture the impact of potential financial measures on fleet replacement capacity. The situation will be seen to be far from identical in the four cities, mainly because of the differences in available cash flow among them.

Published:fév 2001


Organisation, financement et rentabilité des micro-entreprises de transport urbain en Afrique subsaharienne -- Le cas de Harare

Based on the experience of cities where two competitive, transport systems coexist - a large enterprise (private-public in the case of Harare) and, small vehicles enterprises (private sector), the former is subject to term limits, due to mediocre financial performance, and its need for subsidies. In the case of Harare, the Zimbabwe United Passenger Company (ZUPCO) have for quite some time, been a monopoly within the city's network, under private capital, and management, but has never satisfied the public transportation demands. The introduction of informal transport "emergency taxis" (shared taxis with capacity for 7-10 people), and commuter buses in 1993, fostered the decline of ZUPCO. However remarkable, urban transports in Harare still include the presence of modern enterprises, with large buses based on a westernized model, that includes a quasi generalized ticket system, and, which until recently, were profitable. However, the general political and economic situation will pose a fragile future for such enterprises. In addition, if commuter buses attain a dominant position, the system as it currently functions will prod negative elements, i.e., increased traffic congestion, accidents, pollution, and poor transport conditions among others. Interventions in the form of rate bonuses suggest a "reorganization" in the system management, while a transport policy aimed at fostering private sector participation, would provide satisfactory urban transport demands.

Published:déc 2000


Organisation, financement et rentabilité des micro-entreprises de transport urbain en Afrique subsaharienne -- Le cas de Nairobi

The sustainable development of developing countries' cities, namely African, depends on the performance of its urban transport systems, in terms of efficiency, of transport costs, on the energy economy, and on congestion issues. Based on cities experience, two competitive transport systems coexist - that of the large enterprise (private, in the case of Nairobi) - and, that of local communal microenterprise, the former being subjected to term limits, due to mediocre financial performances, consequently to subsidies. Within the Nairobi case, the Kenya Bus Service (KBS) have long exploited as a monopoly, the city's road network, through private capital ownership, and management. Despite its performance with no public subsidies, KBS never satisfied the needs for Nairobi. The introduction of an informal transport service - matatus - following the liberalization of imports, as well as the collapse of KBS, fostered a powerful transport system means. However, the majority status enjoyed by the matatus, has indeed fostered negative factors - increased urban traffic congestion, substantial level of accidents, pollution, poor transport conditions among others. These factors are the consequence of weak organizational structures within the sector, run-down vehicles, precarious traffic safety conditions, the sector's deregulation, with no official regulatory framework, capacity constraints, and, absence of political will to enforce regulation. Notwithstanding, the sector proves a remarkable dynamism in satisfying the demand for public transportation with no public aid. The analysis thus suggests a reorganization of the transport system, that promotes competitiveness, and, a policy formulation that fosters behavioral changes, to reverse the insufficient services cited above.

Published:nov 2000


SOURCE - Routes des pays en développement, gestion et suivi

Published:oct 2000

Author:Louis Fernique

Organisation, financement et rentabilité des micro-entreprises de transport urbain en Afrique subsaharienne -- Le cas de Bamako

Among the capitals of West Africa, Bamako has been singled out because of a system of urban transport, in which the structured enterprises could never attain sustainability. This transport system, in fact controlled by the drivers union, remains undeniably inflexible, and inadaptable. However, the structure of its road network, the employment being concentrated downtown, i.e., conducive to traffic congestion particularly during rush hours, and to higher levels of pollution, are elements favoring improvements to the system. The analysis of transport micro-enterprises rents, and for the rehabilitation of the system, demonstrates that while owning used cars does not pose serious problems, since this is seen as an investment for income generation, or complementary revenues, owning new cars however, is unattainable, based on the fact that the relative weakness of discretionary revenues, does not cover the investment costs. This suggests the need to establish an organizational authority capable of fostering a tariff policy, a progressive professionalism within the sector, production cooperatives, and further mechanisms to improve the transport system. Moreover, measures to enhance the system's external productivity should focus on regular road maintenance practices, financed by urban transport vehicles, but in addition, campaigns and public awareness to combat clandestine taxis or mass transport vehicles, should be promoted.

Published:oct 2000


Étude sur la qualité de l'air en milieu urbain -- Le cas de Cotonou

Published:sep 2000

Micro-entreprises de transport urbain à Abidjan

This note analyzes the organization, profitability, and financing of private mass transit services in Abidjan, with an emphasis on private companies, operating minibuses commonly known as "gbakas". The Abidjan case study is part of a regional study launched early in 1999, under the urban mobility component of the Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program (SSATP), covering four cities: Abidjan, Bamako, Harare, and Nairobi, while the regional study was carried out by the Solidarite Internationale sur les Transports et la Recherche en Afrique Subsaharienne. (SITRASS). The note describes within an urban context, the transport system in Abidjan, with an increasingly peripheral population, and jobs located mainly in the city center. Nonetheless, it also analyzes the sector, and the obvious prospects for profitability, but under uncertain prospects for profitability.

Published:aoû 2000

Author:Amako? Adol?houm? et Alain Bonnafous

Étude régionale sur l’organisation, le financement et la rentabilité des micro-entreprises de transport urbain en Afrique subsaharienne -- Le cas des Gbakas à Abidjan

The stakes are high for Sub-Saharan Africa transport sector: the need to lower merchandises transportation costs, and conversely, offer an increasingly growing urban population, adequate means of transportation. For much too long, citizens grew accustomed to government subsidies (to cover deficits due to mismanagement) of public enterprises now in disarray, and lacking credit. Common transport offer is dominated by private enterprises, which in order to be sustainable, need to raise prices, and operate under quasi delinquent conditions. In the case of Abidjan, the public transport enterprise - SOTRA - has been reduced to almost 50 percent in the last decade, whereas in the same period, mini-buses private enterprises - gbakas - have increased their services by more than 50 percent, including communal taxis - woro-woro. The analysis within this document suggests sector interventions, in the form of bonuses, which should entail a reorganization of the transport system functions, and management, and in addition, the establishment of an organizational authority, to oversee the broad planning framework, and, become in turn the link with urban transport systems capable of integrating relevant dimensions, i.e., human, economic, and environmental aspects.

Published:avr 2000


SSATP Rapport d'activité 1999

The basic premises of the Program are that: (i) policy reform is essential to obtain improved provision of transport services; and (ii) countries and their development partners need to collaborate within the framework of a common vision of policies and strategies in the sector. The SSATP is concentrating on assisting African countries in their efforts to build capacity for designing and implementing these premises. Capacity building is now firmly the focus of the Program. During 1999, the SSATP continued to work through its five components: Road Management Initiative (RMI); Urban Mobility (UM); Rural Travel and Transport Program (RTTP); Trade and Transport (T&T) ; and Railway Restructuring (RR). Compared to 1998, there was again a shift in work intensity between components. The RTTP is now the largest component, active in 16 countries and added a field staff position in Abidjan in late 1999 (this is now expected to be followed by another field staff in Harare, and probably two junior positions, one in Harare and one in Abidjan). The Urban Mobility component expanded its collaboration with the World Bank Institute in work on clean air in the urban setting, maintained collaboration with la Solidarite internationale sur les transports et la recherche en Afrique subsaharienne (SITRASS), INRETS, the Municipal Development Program and la Cooperation pour le developpement et l'amelioration des transports urbains et periurbains (CODATU). The RMI maintained its level of activity, continued substantial work in lusophone countries and developed toolkits for evaluating road investments in the border area between low-volume rural roads and secondary roads, and for demonstration of the influence on the physical state of road networks by different maintenance financing practices. The T&T component experienced a hopefully temporary halt as its principal African interlocutor, MINCONMAR, continued to experience transitional difficulties following the change of its president. The Railway Restructuring component, having completed the very successful Abidjan seminar on rail concessioning in 1997, was largely dormant in anticipation of a similar event to be organized in the year 2000 or 2001. Whereas analysis of transport sector performance and identification of needed sector policy reforms remain at the core of the SSATP, the building of local capacity in Africa to address these issues is now the centerpiece of the Program. The Program is devoting an increasing part of its resources to insure that experiences from individual countries are shared with other countries facing similar problems.

Published:fév 2000

Le Programme de transports en milieu rural - PTMR

Published:sep 1999

Mobilité urbaine -- Dixième session du Comité d’orientation, Cotonou, Bénin -- Travaux et perspectives

Published:sep 1999

Author:Patrick Bultynck

Le jeu stratégique « Tariff & Traffic » -- L’expérience concluante de Madagascar, de la Guinée et du Rwanda

The Note looks at the poignant inefficiency of road maintenance systems in Africa, where the creation of a "second generation" Road Maintenance Fund is considered, particularly due to pressure from the sector donors, and underlined by the principle of commercialization of road maintenance. To this end, the note reviews the concept of a new teaching technique, an interactive tariff and traffic standard workshop, designed as an answer for the road maintenance sector, and based on actual experience in Rwanda, Madagascar, and Guinea. This module is a simulation tool, to identify problems in the sector, its logistics, and to encourage an exchange of ideas, and different approaches through a well-structured discussion framework. Didactic summaries fall into two categories: a number of specific classroom questions concerning major options for definition of the Road Maintenance Fund; and, a number of more technical type subjects - terminology, main technical and economic principles, and particular aspects of the problems. This tariff and traffic module is controlled by a computer program, including a utility routine (run under Excel) provided for collective self-rating of institutional progress. The practical objective of this program is to set up, and train an appropriate mini-network of African tariff and traffic facilitators, and, innovates in the process of disseminating the road maintenance initiative message.

Published:sep 1999

Author:Louis fernique

Mobilité urbaine -- Dixième session du Comité d’orientation, Cotonou, Bénin -- Synthèse des travaux

Published:sep 1999

Synthèse et conclusions de l’étude relative aux dysfonctionnements des transports urbains et à la pollution de l’air à Dakar

This note presents the main conclusions of an on-site study of urban transport dysfunction, and air pollution in the Dakar agglomeration, carried out from August to November 1998, whose findings were discussed at a national seminar, which formed part of the Sub-Saharan African air quality initiative. Regarding the particular problem of air pollution caused by urban transport, the study and the recommendations, defined an action plan, being considered for financing, as part of a project preparation for increasing urban mobility in the Dakar area. The strategy for combating air pollution caused by transport, features three main categories: 1) measures applicable to vehicles themselves, namely to reduce individual emissions, by introducing tax, and regulatory measures governing vehicle imports; by providing technical monitoring centers with equipment for measuring engine emissions; and, by improving fuel quality; 2) operational measures for increasing pollution control efficiency of public transport, by reorganizing mass transit, and, by enforcing actions to ease the flow of vehicular traffic through transport planning; and, 3) measures for reducing demand, namely related to issues of urban planning, such as administrative, or educational decentralization.

Published:avr 1999

Le modèle de décision économique RED pour les routes à faible trafic

Published:mar 1999

Author:Rodrigo S. Archondo-Callao

Les Micro-entreprises de transport en commun -- Leur régularisation en Afrique du Sud

The note outlines the progress achieved by the Western Cape Provincial Government, to attain formalization of the mini-bus taxi industry, envisaged in terms of the National Taxi Task Team (NTTT) recommendations, released in September 1996. The Western Cape departed from the other eight provinces of South Africa, by deciding to commit key elements of the NTTT recommendations, to legislation in the Western Cape Road Transportation Act Amendment Law. This action was prompted by the determination of the Provincial Minister of Transport, to halt the violent situation that had characterized the Minibus Taxi Industry until then. The formation of a Provincial Taxi Working Group, backed by this legislation has been an effective means to advance the formalization process in the Western Cape Province. This initiative is currently at its most active, and will continue through the remainder of 1998, and into 1999, until the minibus taxi industry has been fully regulated. Training, and economic restructuring measures are also being provided, according to the NTTT recommendations.

Published:mar 1999

Author:Yasir Ahmed

SSATP Rapport d'activité 1998

The present Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Program (SSATP) progress report, specifies that, while the Program's basic premises, still prevail - policy reform, essential to obtain improved provision of transport services, within a common regulatory framework on sector policies and strategies - it is however, at present, focusing on assisting African countries in capacity building, and ensuring an exchange of experiences, among countries facing similar options. SSATP continued work in 1998, through its components on road management initiative, urban transport, rural travel and transport, trade and transport, and, railway restructuring, with significant increase in the fields of rural travel and transport, and, urban transport, during 1998, in comparison to 1997, whereas, road management work, remained at the previous year's level, and work on ports, maritime transport, and railways, were, temporarily, less intense. The relevance of introducing cross-cutting themes, was examined during a log-frame exercise in mid-1998, although only three themes - environment, safety, and, gender -were selected, in order to prioritize a manageable work load. The continued collaboration with international programs was strengthened, namely, with universities, international agencies, and, non governmental organizations, as an attempt to disseminate technical analyses, and share transport sector experiences. A draft business plan for the SSATP 1999-2001 is being issued.

Published:fév 1999

Transports urbains -- Plan de développement stratégique 1998-2002

The World Bank's role in Sub-Saharan Africa's urban transport sub-sector has evolved in the last few years. Recent projects concerned specifically with urban transport (e.g., in Ghana, Kenya, and Senegal), are based on a comprehensive approach to urban mobility issues. Indeed, apart from the traditional components concerned with urban infrastructure works or road construction, these projects take into account such factors as: (a) the role of the local authorities; (b) the strengthening of local human resources; (c) the institutional reform; (d) the integration of non-motorized traffic; (e) the participation in the project preparation process by the main stakeholders in the system; (f) road safety measures for pedestrians, (g) a concern about the impact of motorized transport on air pollution, and (h) an enhanced but regulated private sector role in the supply of transport services. Such an evolution has been achieved through a combination of (a) sector dialogue including the participation of all major stakeholders, (b) the overall application of a regional approach to exchange information, disseminate best results and compare experiences, and (c) the contribution of the Donors community to the program. This comprehensive approach pursued by the SSATP and the partnership with African Authorities have contributed to pave the way for a sustainable development of urban transport services in Sub-Saharan Africa cities.

Published:aoû 1998

Author:Patrick Bultynck