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La restructuration des administrations routières -- Le cas FinnRa présente-t-il des options pour l’Afrique ?

Until the late 1970s, the Finnish Road and Waterways Administration (RWA) operated as a highly centralized agency. Then RWA started its gradual reforms. In the mid 1980s, RWA began evolving into a market-oriented road administration. As part of the reform process, there have been profound changes in competition law, principles of public procurement, and in the legislation enabling the creation of state-owned enterprises and the commercialization of government agencies. The reforms have resulted in significant budgetary savings, a more streamlined bureaucracy, increased decentralization, greater transparency in procurement, and a more strategic approach to change and reform. The case of Finland illustrates how public management reforms can be successfully designed and implemented, leading to increased efficiency and improved service in road management.

Published:juil 1998

Author:Lauri Ojala et Esko Sirvio

Comprimer les coûts et améliorer la qualité grâce aux contrats d’entretien routier liés à la performance -- Expériences pilotes conduites en Amérique latine que l’Afrique pourrait reprendre à son compte

Experiences in several Latin American countries, show the promises, and challenges of contracting out road maintenance, based on performance standards, rather than on the traditional way, which is based on a schedule of unit prices, and estimates of quantities. Performance standards are defined by: the International Roughness Index (IRI) to measure road surfaces, as it affects vehicle operating costs; by the absence of potholes, and the control of cracks, and rutting; by the minimum amount of friction between tires, and the road surface for safety reasons; by the maximum amount of siltation, or other obstruction of the drainage system; by the retro-flexivity of road signs, and markings; and, by the control of vegetation close to the roadway, according to a specific, given height. Lessons suggest first of all, a careful planning of performance specifications, for the successful implementation of pilot schemes for contracting out road maintenance; secondly, close collaboration between road administrations, and contractors is paramount to achieve substantial improvement of road conditions; and, management, financial, and technical training is recommended, particularly for less-experienced contractors.

Published:juin 1998

Author:Gunter Zietlow

La Concession d’exploitation du chemin de fer Abidjan-Ouagadougou

The note examines the concession technique in railway operations, for the first time used in Sub-Saharan Africa, in Cote d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso, who jointly concessioned the Abidjan-Ouagadougou Railway to a private operator in December 1994. Since the 1980's, most Sub-Saharan African railways have been experiencing a severe crisis: declining traffic, and revenue; lack of market orientation, and poor service; continued operation of high-loss passenger services; poor maintenance; and, gross overstaffing, in addition to lack of technical, and financial discipline, and heavy financial losses. Attempts to restructure railways as public entities generally failed. Involvement of the private sector in railway operations, under a concession arrangement now seems to be a promising tool for transforming railways into business-oriented enterprises. The note points at the lessons of experience, outlining the importance of the bidding, and selection process for strategic shareholders of the concessionaire company, to widen potential operators, and strengthen competition; the importance of a defined investment financing scheme, to provide incentives to a commercial approach to investing; and, cautions against assigning railway landlord corporations with a major role in the implementation of investment programs.

Published:mai 1998

Author:Brigitta Mitchell et Karim-Jacques Budin

Solutions pour la gestion et le financement des infrastructures de transport rural

This paper presents a framework for improving management and financing of local government roads and community roads and paths based on two distinct owner categories and a redefined partnership between the public and private sectors. Local governments or their agents will manage the core rural roads; communities and associations of farmers will choose which roads and paths they own; the private sector will sell management services to the local road agencies and carry out physical works. Ownership of roads by small-scale farmers, the largest private sector group in most Sub-Saharan African countries, will increase efficiency and bring more roads under regular maintenance. This framework will be based on a public-private partnership in which costs are shared by governments, communities, farmers, and road users.

Published:mai 1998

Author:Christina Malmberg Calvo

SSATP Rapport d'activité 1998

The SSATP in its earlier years was driven by the desire of the donor community to see policy reform introduced in the interest of efficient use of donor funds. Now, as both the Bank and other donors increasingly work in a partnership mode with countries in project formulation (witnessed i.e. in the move towards SIPs), there is an emerging demand for the services of the program within the African countries. The program presently works through five active components: Road Management Initiative (RMI), Rural Travel and Transport (RTTP), Urban Transport (UT), Trade and Transport (T&T), and Railway Restructuring (RR). There is general agreement that structuring the program in separate components is practical and should be continued. Adding new components has met with resistance from the donor community, security and safety considerations are being rolled into existing components rather than being started up as separate activities. The program deals with all aspect of transport (T&T deals with maritime transport) except aviation. There is a frequently expressed but not clearly stated demand for the program to address this mode of transport. Demand for the Program varies a lot between countries and components, and within components, it varies over time. At this time, there is burgeoning demand expressed by countries for the services of the RTTP and Urban Transport components in rural and urban transport strategy formulation, and from countries and Bank country departments for the RMI designing mechanisms for financing, planning, and implementing road maintenance work.

Published:mar 1998

La sécurité routière en Afrique -- Évaluation des initiatives de sécurité routière dans cinq pays africains

Upon the request of the World Bank, the Institute of Transport Economics, Norway did an appraisal of the road safety situation and road safety work in five African countries: Benin, Cote d'Ivoire, Kenya, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. The overall objective of the evaluation was to identify key measures that would reduce fatalities, personal injuries, and material damage from road accidents in Africa. The information was collected through visits to the five countries. A report on the road safety situation of each country was then sent to the authorities responsible for road safety in each country, and their comments have been incorporated into the final report. A preliminary version of this report was presented at the Third African Road Safety Congress, April 1997. The report's findings include the following: Safety Congress. All five countries have accident data systems. Three countries admit that an unknown share of accidents are not recorded. The definition of a fatality varies from dead on- the-road to dead up to 30 days after the accident. Between 1968 and 1990 road fatalities in Africa increased by 350 percent. Without some action this increase will probably continue as the number of motor vehicles increases. The number of people killed and injured in road accidents relative to the population in most African countries has not yet reached the same level as Europe and North America; but, the rate of those killed and injured relative to the number of motor vehicles is extremely high in most African countries. During the last five years, the number of motor vehicles in the five countries has increased from 21 to 63 percent, road accidents from 15 to 70 percent, fatalities from 28 to 57 percent, and injuries from 27 to 89 percent. Pedestrians and public transport passengers are the largest groups among the fatalities, about 30-40 percent each. All five countries have national road safety councils, founded between 1972 and 1995. The objectives of the well. Foreign assistance is common. Road infrastructure is given first priority, and safety problems seem to be relegated to a second level. The road engineering measures, such as roundabouts or speed humps, generally known to reduce accidents, will likely have the same effect in developing countries as in highly motorized countries. Most countries face problems in financing road maintenance, and road safety may be compromised. Road signs are stolen or damaged, and replacement is costly and rarely carried out. Donors seem to have taken more interest in road maintenance lately, improving the chances for making road safety measures a part of road maintenance. The priority given to road safety aspects in road planning and maintenance reflects, to some degree, the priority of the donors rather than that of the recipient countries. Although there is some road safety publicity in all five countries, most countries lack adequate budgets for publicity. The road safety information campaigns are not evaluated, and their effect on road accidents is unknown. Two countries have compulsory driver training in private driving schools, and three countries have no compulsory driver training. All five countries face corruption in driver testing and license issuing, allowing unskilled drivers on the roads, and some countries have problems with forged licenses. The activities which seem to be functioning best are the accident recording systems, road engineering, and legislation. Legislation and engineering are important measures, and further extension and improvement of these measures still have a potential for reducing accidents. Organizational changes, funding, legislation amendments and enforcement are the most difficult activities to implement.

Published:Jan 1998

Author:Terje Assum

Développer les transports en Afrique - Un secteur en pleine mutation

Providing effective and efficient infrastructure underpins all attempts to reduce poverty. Trade is the engine of economic growth, and reliable and efficient transport is essential for successful trade. Transport is needed to facilitate production and exchanges, enable farmers to produce and bring their products to markets, and provide the basis for private investment. The poor state of transport infrastructure impedes Africa's development and obstructs poverty reduction. One of the main reasons for the poor performance in transport has been inadequate institutional incentives for improving infrastructure and infrastructure services. To promote responsive service delivery, incentives need to be changed through commercial management, competition, and user involvement. Establishing a new culture in developing Africa's transport infrastructure will therefore be critical. This involves a learning process that leads to a paradigm shift in governments' understanding of their role in transport provision. Global experience has proven that good infrastructure is a prerequisite to the massive private investment that is so badly needed in Africa. Thus, even if the public sector could manage transport infrastructure effectively, the private sector will be increasingly asked to finance it. Changing the culture of transport infrastructure provision will demand an increasing role for the private sector

Published:Jan 1998

Author:Peter Watson

Système de desserte à escales multiples ou système de transbordement -- Transport maritime de conteneurs entre l’Afrique de l’Ouest et l’Europe

The note discusses the container traffic, based on data collected, which for the West, and Central African Coast, from Mauritania to Angola, the container cargo flow shows unequal distribution. This can be explained by the variation in population density, but also by the concentration of regional trade in the Gulf of Guinea. For the purpose of examining unit cost difference between a best example of a current multiple port call system, and a hypothetical optimal hub, and spoke system, the region from Senegal to Cameroon was selected, in order to reflect a common route system in the West Africa-Europe trade, where containerization of cargo is more prevalent, and, because the area is more reliable than the rest of the region. Although the comparison indicates the region would be marginally better off under the hub and spoke system, it also shows the stripped unit cost difference is not pronounced. The only clear winner would be the hub, Abidjan, where alternatively all West African ports would be losers, and as such, Abidjan would reap all benefits, while in terms of cost, and to an extent service level, all other ports would be worse off. In sum, findings do not indicate a clear cut case for, or against a hub and spoke system in the region, for estimated benefits are not conclusive enough, changes in service levels are unbalanced in favor of the hub, but with no substantial lowering of overall costs.

Published:déc 1997

Author:Gylfi Palsson

Système de desserte à escales multiples ou système de transbordement -- Transport maritime de conteneurs entre l’Afrique de l’Ouest et l’Europe

This paper discusses the containerized seaborne trade between West Africa and Europe. It gives an overview of current status of the maritime industry in the region, discusses ways in which less costly transportation chains can be achieved and, in particular, examines claims made on the benefit of a development of a hub-and-spoke system for the region. The maritime transportation industry serving West Africa has been late in adapting to the increasingly more efficient operations experienced in most other developing regions. The primary reasons for this are (a) inefficient port operations, (b) a lack of appropriate port infrastructure and land based distribution systems, (c) insistence on competition, (d) sheltering for national lines in the form of unorthodox interpretations of the provisions of the UNCTAD liner Code, and, (e) candidly, the relative lack of economic importance and peripheral geographical location of the region. The maritime industry serving West Africa has, nonetheless, shown signs of becoming more competitive in recent years, particularly as the concept of trade sharing has started to fade. One of the major changes in worldwide maritime trade came, when transport operators ceased viewing their markets as individual pockets of port-to-port operations, and started to view their operation on a sub-regional, regional, or even global level consisting of door-to-door services.

Published:déc 1997

Author:Gylfi Palsson

Les aspects économiques de la sécurité routière

The note examines several possible entry points for debating the economics of traffic safety, namely, the supply side approach, which addresses the cost of accidents to society, and those affected by it; the demand side approach, which addresses the willingness of people to pay, to avoid or curb accidents; the macroeconomic consequences of traffic accidents, and of measures to improve safety, raising questions on the impact of traffic safety on economic growth - an issue subject to much misunderstanding; and, who is responsible, or should pay for. The valuation of traffic accidents consists of two components: the costs of premature loss of life and reduced health quality; and, the loss of income (output) and remedial expenditures (medicinal and material). Variations in estimated costs between countries highlight specific characteristics, such as speed limit variations, monitoring and enforcement, and, compulsory use of seat belts, of headlights during daylight, and, of vehicular, and tire safety controls, in addition to road standards, and maintenance.

Published:nov 1997

Author:Jorgen Karthum Hansen

La Mise en Concession de l'Exploitation Ferroviaire -- Une Nouvelle Approche de la Restructuration des Chemins de Fer en Afrique Sub-Saharienne

The note reviews concessioning of rail operations, as a partnership between the State, and a private operator in which, while maintaining ownership of rail infrastructure, the State transfers railway operations to the concessionaire, under agreed conditions. It examines the scope of the concession, the railway activity regulatory framework, and management of railway infrastructure, and of locomotives and rolling stock, in addition to the concessionaire's staff governing legal regulations, fees, and taxation. To be effective, the note suggests the concessioning company must possess strong leadership committed to commercialization of the rail transport management, in addition to having a strategic investor within the company who holds a majority on the board of directors, and designates the company's general manager. Similarly to many railways in developing, and developed countries, Sub-Saharan Africa's railways are now at a crossroads, facing increased competition, though railways will play an important role in the national, and regional transportation systems, only if management practices undergo reform, and the railway economic role is redefined by concentrating on market segments of better performance than their competitors.

Published:juin 1997

Author:Karim-Jacques Budin

Réforme du secteur routier : un conte de deux pays -- Troisième partie : Impact et leçons

This is Part 3 of a series intended to share information about issues raised in various Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program (SSATP) reports, and the note addresses the impact, and lessons learned from road sector reforms in two countries: Burkina Faso, and Ghana. While Burkina Faso's reforms are more structured, and planned, Ghana's more complex political, and economic history have had greater influence on road sector reforms than any attempt at advance planning. The note compares the main factors in each country contributing to road management improvements, specifying that while the Ghana Road Fund has been in place for ten years, it has not been able to sustain a road maintenance financing; however, the Government has agreed to increase the fuel levy significantly over the next five years, to sufficiently maintain the road network. Conversely, Burkina Faso's Societe de Location du Materiel has provided publicly acquired equipment for lease by small- and medium-sized enterprises, allowing for wider coverage of participating enterprises at lower costs, but its drawback is that it does not necessarily equip the firms at the end of any given period. Thus the note calls for incorporation of public property, as a useful transitional phase from force account, and government ownership of capital equipment, to full-fledged private ownership, and contracting; for institutionalized procedures for sustainable road management reforms; and, for government commitment to long-term reform

Published:avr 1997

Author:Sam Mwamburi Mwale

Moyens intermédiaires de transport en Afrique subsaharienne

Without access to adequate transport, rural communities in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are cut off from basic goods, services, and facilities. Intermediate Means of Transport (IMT) - pack and draft animals, wheelbarrows and handcarts, bicycles, cycle trailers and tricycles, and low-cost, slow-moving motorized vehicles - are used widely in Asia, but are much less common in Africa. The World Bank has labeled this absence of IMT in SSA the "missing middle" of the rural transport system. The potential demand for IMT in SSA is high; but a multi-dimensional market failure has prevented potential demand from being translated into effective demand. The potential demand for IMT in SSA is high; but a multi-dimensional market failure has prevented potential demand from being translated into effective demand.

Published:avr 1997

Une nouvelle génération de fonds routiers au secours des routes africaines

Financing road maintenance through road funds is not a new concept, but it is one that is rekindling interest. A new generation of road funds is emerging in Africa, quite distinct from "classic" road funds, drawing inspiration from the tenets of services, efficiency, and responsibility. The objective posts the point of view that road funds should be run like businesses and not administered like social services. The basic idea is to commercialize roads. The main problems found in Sub-Saharan Africa are: a) revenues which belong to the road funds are not actually deposited and/or are deposited irregularly; b) contributions to the road fund are inadequate for minimal upkeep of the network; and c) fund revenues are poorly managed and, in fact, are often used for purposes other than road maintenance, such as central administration operating expenses. Three pillars support the new-generation of road funds: 1) road commercialization, 2) co-management of road funds, and 3) strict and transparent financial management.

Published:avr 1997

Réforme du secteur routier : un conte de deux pays -- Deuxieme partie: Burkina Faso un projet delibéré de réformes

The note is the second part of a series intended to share information about issues raised in various Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program (SSATP) reports, and it addresses Burkina Faso's recent institutional reforms, highlighting the deliberate inclusion of stakeholders in designing the evolving reform, in contrast to reforms in other countries. The note analyzes the road maintenance program, and the restructured Public Works Department, now with the responsibility for planning, and scheduling annual maintenance operations, and administering works performed by small- or medium-sized enterprises, though the control of the equipment pool has been relinquished to an autonomous corporation, the Societe de Location du Materiel (SLM), a commercial enterprise in all respects, except for its contract to maintain government holdings: both the Government, and private sector lease equipment from SLM at commercial rates, and its operational, and capital costs are covered by revenues from leasing out its own equipment. Moreover, SLM provides assistance to small- and medium-sized enterprises development, and, ensures accountability, by conducting extensive audits of all contracted works, both from the technical, and financial standpoint. Reforms have reduced the procurement timing, speeded up the payment process, obviously enhancing the efficiency of the public, and private sector road maintenance.

Published:mar 1997

Author:Sam Mwamburi Mwale

Réforme du secteur routier : un conte de deux pays -- Première partie: Ghana -- le hasard ou la nécessité ?

As part of a series intended to share information about issues raised in various Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program (SSATP) reports, this note is the first part, addressing the road sector reform process in Ghana, still challenged by political, economic, and social forces. It examines the sustainable Ghana Roads Fund, financed mainly by a fuel levy, and, the contracting process, where all three agencies, i.e., the Ghana Highways Authority, Department of Feeder Roads, and the Department of Urban Roads, contract up to ninety percent of periodic road maintenance to the private sector. Private contractors have proven their ability to provide the desired output with efficiency, quality, and timeliness. However, it is the Ghanaian contracting process which has successfully overcome either equipment, or employment obstacles: effort are pursued vigorously with intensive training, supported by Ghanaian engineering consulting firms who provide technical assistance, and supervisory services to the contracting industry. Following training completion, contractors who lack sufficient equipment, are enrolled in a loan-purchase scheme, where during four years they are guaranteed work, during which time they must repay the loan. While recent legal, and institutional reforms point to a decentralization of road construction, and maintenance activities, and to an extent, to operational definition of reforms by the political economy, the Road Fund secures funding through its private-public partnership Board.

Published:fév 1997

Author:Sam Mwamburi Mwale

Promotion des réformes du secteur routier par les médias

Published:déc 1996

Author:Sam Mwamburi Mwale

Financement privé des infrastructures routières -- Point de vue d'une société concessionnaire

Published:nov 1996

Promouvoir les moyens intermédiaires de transport

A transport system responsive to needs is recognized as a major prerequisite for the social and economic development of rural areas. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the rural transport system are, in general, in a very poor state. Accessibility in rural areas is low and fluctuates with the seasons, and transport costs are irregular but high. Transport needs claim a significant part of daily life for the rural population, especially for women of all ages. To enhance existing knowledge of local transport in rural Africa, village-level travel and transport surveys and related case studies were carried out under the RTTP. The findings were synthesized in the report "Transport and the Village"(World Bank Discussion Paper Number 344, 1996) and are the basis for an endeavor to formulate practical approaches to the design of projects and programs to improve rural transport in SSA. These endeavors are the subjects of our approach papers, of which the present paper is one. Common threads through these papers are a realization that program designs must respond to local conditions, and that no standard solution exists; that whatever actions are taken must be sustainable and increasingly rely on local resources; and that this points to a much increased influence by the stakeholders in planning, designing and operating the transport systems in rural Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper puts forward a five-stage decision-making model for the designer/planner of projects or programs. It begins with a contextual analysis that gives attention to environmental factors; economic, industrial, and social factors; and non-project issues such as institutional, policy, and regulatory. The results are filtered through a consideration of access issues, including national norms and targets as well as the possibility of non-transport solutions to what may appear to be transport problems. This leads to a diagnosis of the problem to be tackled and the objectives to be set in improving the rural transport system. A supply and demand analysis then provides a bridge between the definition of needs and the last stage, the planning of detailed action.

Published:sep 1996

Author:I.T. Transport Ltd

Planification des transports ruraux

Transport Infrastructure (RTI) - its "public goods "nature - was identified as the primary reason why governments and, therefore, planners must be involved in providing it. The concept of a "public service industry" is introduced in Chapter I as a way of analyzing the elements of a posited rural access planning framework. A distinction was made between the provision of public goods and their production. Provision of public goods refers to decision-making with respect to (1) the kinds, quantity and quality of public goods and services provided; (2) the degree to which private activities related to these goods and services are regulated; (3) how to arrange for production of the desired public goods and services; (4) how to finance the provision of these goods and services; and (5) how to monitor the performance of those who produce the goods and services. Production of public goods and services refers to the technical process of transforming inputs into outputs.

Published:sep 1996

Author:Ed Connerley, Larry Schroeder

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