Lessons learned from the Case Studies

  1. The variety of fare collection systems in international practice is very broad, though each has some common elements in the interaction of policies, practices, procedures and technologies.
  2. The development of the fare collection system in most cities has been rational from a local perspective, and based on incremental measures intended to address changing priorities over time.
  3. However, where a fundamental change has occurred in the strategic policy and institutional framework – such as a change in the form of economic regulation, or in the ownership of the operator(s) – then a radical change in the fare collection system is likely to be needed as well.
  4. The introduction of an effective electronic fare collection system can transform the financial status of the urban passenger transport sector. Revenue integrity in large-scale and publicly-owned public transport operators is traditionally low in transition and developing countries, and a more secure system can increase their takings dramatically.
  5. The benefits of an effective electronic fare collection system can be utilized in a number of ways, depending on the local priorities. Fare pricing levels may be reduced (in real terms), fares may be restructured for social objectives, or the surpluses may be reinvested into the public transport system.
  6. The underlying technologies required by an electronic fare collection system may enable various other capabilities within the public transport system. These can include automatic vehicle location for operational management and real-time passenger information.