Running-way surveillance


This section considers Surveillance of the running-way for security, safety and operational purposes. Surveillance of the running-way for detection and deterrence of moving violations and encroachment is covered in the section Traffic Management, Public Transport Lane/facility violation monitoring.

ITS applications provide support for Surveillance of the running-way for security, safety and operational purposes. The ITS systems provide information which must be acted upon by others. As with many other applications, it needs to be embedded in a broader organisational and operational structure.

Running ways include:

  • Guided and unguided busways, with high degree of segregation, operating at high speeds
  • Right of way with moderate degree of segregation, operating at moderate to high speeds
  • Bus lanes with mild physical separator but otherwise quite open, operating at moderate speeds but sometime significantly higher speeds than the adjacent lanes
  • Bus lanes without physical separation (lane markings)

Surveillance is required to detect any of the following in the running way:

  • Vehicle breakdowns
  • Accidents
  • Obstacles and hazards
  • People or animals within the running way
  • People who may seek to damage the system

Surveillance of the running-way can be supported by ITS applications as follows:

  • Image acquisition by CCTV
  • Detection of blockages, hazards or anomalies by automated Image processing
  • Alerts of reduced speeds from the CAD/AVM system
  • Incident alerts from the drivers via the CAD/AVM radio system

ITS-based monitoring is based on cameras, with two common deployment scenarios:

  • Avail of the CCTV network of the traffic authority
  • Install dedicated cameras for monitoring the public transport lanes/facilities
    • If no traffic authority cameras available
    • To supplement the traffic authority cameras for blind spots, etc.

The CCTV images are usually relayed to a control centre where they are recorded. This could be a BRT system management centre, or the CAD/AVM control centre of the transit operator.

Technologies, data and resources

The main technologies used for at-station surveillance are:

  • CCTVs, usually with PTZ (pan, tilt, zoom) or equivalent capability
  • Communications from the camera locations, usually land lines and fibre-optic by choice, due to bandwidth requirements
  • Voice and data communication to operations, security and support units, and to external entities such as the police and ambulance services
  • Viewing screens at control centre
  • Image management software
  • Image and data storage and archiving

Advantages and Cautions

The primary advantages of Running Way Surveillance are to:

  • Provide continuous and comprehensive monitoring of the running way
  • Improve the ability to detect obstructions, breakdowns and other items that could disrupt the service, and to respond immediately
  • Improve the ability to detect hazards and respond immediately, to avoid accidents
  • Record events for later review, including analysis of how operational and security events develop

The principal cautions in relation to Running Way surveillance are:

  • The large number of cameras and the large volume of continuous data and image streams need to be well structured and managed.
  • Operatives need to be trained in what to observe
  • Care needs to be taken to avoid CCTV operatives becoming passive observers of the images
  • Costs of maintaining CCTV systems can be high

Relevant Case Studies