Area of jurisdiction
Effective and integrated reform of urban passenger transport systems requires due recognition of the relevant geographic area to be covered by the measures. In most cases this will be the extent of a conurbation, or a grouping of conurbations within close proximity. Settlements just outside the conurbation that provide significant sources of regular commuter travel to it might also be included, though clearly there is a limit to the extent to which that is practicable.
The problem, though, is that the extent of the conurbation is very rarely coincident with the political boundaries of local-government jurisdictions, and that this problem is intensified over time as rapid urbanization leads to expansion of the urban area. In extreme cases the growth may even extend into an adjoining State or Region, and clearly this can exacerbate the problems arising.