Enabling legal framework
Where there is no coincidence between the extent of an urban area and its political boundaries, there is then a need either to redefine the jurisdiction or to introduce mechanisms whereby neighboring local authorities can act together with collective authority. In most cases, this will require the introduction of primary legislation to authorize the necessary collective powers and to establish the institution(s) to implement them. In some countries, though, local government legislation makes provision for collective action by adjoining authorities.
Institutional integration may prove less satisfactory where the area into which a conurbation is growing has differing characteristics, and for which urban transport might then not then be seen as a political priority. This problem can be exacerbated if there is an imbalance in the allocation of central government funding for transport functions, and obligations are placed on the peri-urban authorities for which they are not resourced.